From 18—28 June, the carrier and four escorts participated in an exercise with the Royal Navy in a joint and combined warfare training exercise in the North Sea , near the Hebrides and in Scotland. Enterprise was beginning her voyage home from the Persian Gulf when the September 11 attacks were carried out. Without orders, the carrier returned to the waters off Southwest Asia near the Persian Gulf , outrunning her escorts. The actions were designed to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a base for terrorist operations and to attack the military capability of the Taliban regime.
The concert was carried live on CBS. Bush addressed the sailors of Enterprise from its flight deck. From September to February , the ship deployed to relieve the four carriers that were on station during the invasion of Iraq. Enterprise's role was to provide continued air support for Operation Iraqi Freedom. The fully repaired Cole was a member of her escort group at this time. The ship made several port-calls to Jebel Ali, a stop in Bahrain during which actor Ben Affleck visited the ship , and Naples, Italy and Cartegna, Spain on the way home.
Admiral James Stavridis commanded the battle group at this time with Captain Eric Neidlinger as Enterprise ' s commanding officer. Departing the dock after this yard period, Enterprise ran through a sand bar, causing all eight reactors to shut down, leaving the ship adrift on emergency power for nearly three hours before she was tugged back to her pier at Norfolk Naval Base.
It took approximately three days for the ship's nuclear machinists to clear her condensers of river mud [ citation needed ]. In May , Enterprise departed for a six-month deployment, operating in the 6th , 5th and 7th Fleet areas in a world-tour, supporting Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom, and visiting ports in Dubai, Hong Kong, and crossing the line.
She returned to Norfolk 18 November On 19 December , the carrier returned home after a six-month deployment in the Persian Gulf. As maintenance was performed, costs continued to rise above projections and the completion date repeatedly slid. Enterprise , the oldest active combat vessel in the Navy, was scheduled to be decommissioned as late as On 6 April , Admiral Gary Roughead , Chief of Naval Operations , stated that he was seeking a congressional dispensation to speed up the process to decommission Enterprise.
Under this new timetable, the ship would complete one final deployment before being decommissioned in late or early This would temporarily reduce the U.
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Navy to having only ten active aircraft carriers through the launch of the Gerald R. Ford in In October , the House and Senate Armed Services Committees agreed with the recommendation, approving the decommissioning of Enterprise in after 51 years of service. Also, it took eight months longer than scheduled.
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The Navy said it planned to use the carrier for two six-month deployments before her scheduled decommissioning date. On 1 January , the Virginian-Pilot leaked highlights from the final video of a set entitled "XO Movie Night" that was filmed on Enterprise and aired via closed circuit television on select Saturday evenings. The videos, which were not meant for release outside the command, were produced by Captain Owen Honors when he was executive officer XO of the ship in the —07 timeframe and included profanity, anti-gay slurs, and sexually suggestive scenes.
Harvey, Jr. Captain Dee Mewbourne was appointed as replacement commander. The carrier and her strike group deployed on 13 January The carrier returned to Norfolk on 15 July During its deployment, it had participated in operations that captured 75 Somali pirates and its strike group made missile strikes against the Libyan government. On 17 August , Captain William C. Hamilton, Jr. Dee L. Mewbourne as Enterprise's commanding officer. The mission was described as routine, not a response to a specific threat. Upon completion of this cruise in fall , Enterprise was scheduled to be deactivated.
In October , Enterprise transited the Suez Canal for the final time. While on her last journey, the carrier cruised nearly 81, miles in a day deployment to the Persian Gulf and her aircraft flew more than 2, sorties in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Navy's operation and maintenance budget for Fiscal Year Enterprise was the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to be decommissioned. On 8 February , the United States Department of Defense announced that a number of nuclear projects would have to be postponed until the upcoming budget sequestration issue was resolved.
These include the planned de-fuelling of Enterprise as well as mid-life overhauls including nuclear refuelling for two Nimitz -class ships. The final reactor was defueled in December ,  with decommissioning on 3 February According to Navy Sea Systems Command, the recycling of Enterprise was delayed by the Navy until further information on "more technically executable, environmentally responsible" approaches to disposing of the aircraft carrier are available. Enterprise will be stored at Hampton Roads until disposal plans can be determined by the Navy.
Enterprise first appeared in the movie Yours, Mine and Ours. Henry Fonda played the role of Frank Beardsley, a U. Navy officer detached from the ship. Enterprise was a principal setting of the popular movie Top Gun released in Director Tony Scott filmed actual flight operations aboard ship and incorporated them into the film's plot. The ship was unavailable for filming, so scenes depicting Enterprise were again filmed aboard USS Ranger. In the subsequent prequel series Star Trek: Enterprise , a quartet of portraits depicting vessels named Enterprise adorns the wall of Captain Jonathan Archer 's ready room, the second of which is the CVN From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Decommissioned US aircraft carrier. For other ships with the same name, see USS Enterprise. Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis. Main article: USS Enterprise fire. This section does not cite any sources.
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Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2 January GDP Then? Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 3 April This was to prove a significant factor in the catastrophic fire and explosions that occurred on Enterprise's flight deck in All attack carriers built since the Midway class have had armored flight decks. Jane's Fighting Ships — Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 18 July Bureau of Naval Personnel.
March Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 1 March Retrieved 20 April The entry can be found here. Retrieved 8 December New York: Mallard Press, Encyclopedia of World Sea Power , p. Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 14 July Tony Long. History Channel. Archived from the original The Sixth Decade on 2 August Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Retrieved 13 January Navy News.
Australian Gov. Retrieved 21 November Los Angeles Times. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Archived from the original on 18 January US Navy. Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 20 February No sooner than Monitor had weighed anchor, numerous small boats and spectators on shore flocked around the ship to congratulate the crew for what they regarded as their victory over Virginia. Assistant Secretary Fox, who observed the entire battle from aboard Minnesota , came aboard Monitor and jokingly told her officers, " Well gentlemen, you don't look as though you just went through one of the greatest naval conflicts on record ".
A small tug soon came alongside and the blinded Worden was brought up from his cabin while crew members and spectators cheered. He was taken directly to Fort Monroe for preliminary treatment, then to a hospital in Washington shortly thereafter. Stimers and Newton soon began repairing the damage to the pilot house and reconfigured the sides from an upright position to a slope of thirty degrees to deflect the shot. During this time, Mrs. Worden personally brought news of her husband's progress and recovery and was optimistic, informing the crew his eyesight would soon return but he would be laid up for some time.
She also informed them President Lincoln had personally paid Worden a visit extending his gratitude. The Confederates were also celebrating what they considered a victory, as crowds of spectators gathered along the banks of the Elizabeth River , cheering and waving flags, handkerchiefs and hats as Virginia , displaying the captured ensign of Congress , passed along up the river. The Confederate government was ecstatic and immediately promoted Buchanan to Admiral.
Both the Union and Confederacy soon came up with plans for defeating the other's ironclad. Oddly, these did not depend on their own ironclads. On 11 April, Virginia , accompanied by a number of gunboats, steamed into Hampton Roads to Sewell's Point at the southeast edge, almost over to Newport News , in a challenge to Monitor in an attempt to lure the Union ironclad into battle. Virginia fired a few shots ineffectively at very long range, while Monitor returned fire while remaining near Fort Monroe, ready to fight if Virginia came to attack the Federal force congregated there.
Virginia did not take the bait. Their flags were then hoisted " Union-side down " to taunt Monitor into a fight as they were towed back to Norfolk. In the end, both sides had failed to provoke a fight on their terms. The Confederate Navy originally had devised a plan where the James River Squadron would swarm Monitor with a party of men with the intention of capturing the vessel by boarding and disabling her by using heavy hammers to drive iron wedges under and disabling the turret and by covering the pilothouse with a wet sail effectively blinding the pilot.
Others would throw combustibles down the ventilation openings and smoke holes. At one point Jones made such an attempt to board the vessel but she managed to slip away around the stern of Virginia in time. A second meeting occurred on 8 May, when Virginia came out while Monitor and four other Federal ships bombarded Confederate batteries at Sewell's Point. She did not follow, however, and after firing a gun to windward as a sign of contempt, anchored off Sewell's Point. Later, when Confederate forces abandoned Norfolk on 11 May , they were forced to destroy Virginia.
As the Navy always gave command to officers based on seniority, Greene was replaced with Lieutenant Thomas O. Selfridge the day after the battle. The force had instructions to coordinate their efforts with McClellan's forces on land and push on towards Richmond to bombard the city into surrender if possible.
There were also artillery batteries at Fort Darling overlooking and guarding the approach, along with other heavy guns and sharpshooters positioned along the river banks. After the battle at Drewry's Bluff Monitor remained on the James River providing support, along with the Galena and other gunboats, to McClellan's troops at various points along the river including Harrison's Landing   which ended in August. However most of the time spent on the river was marked with inactivity and hot weather which had a negative effect on the morale of Monitor ' s crew.
During the long, hot, summer, several crew members became sick and were transferred to Hampton Roads while various officers were replaced including Newton, while Jeffers was replaced by Commander Thomas H. Stevens, Jr. By the end of August, Monitor was ordered back to Hampton Roads and dropped anchor nearby the sunken Cumberland at Newport News Point on 30 August, much to the approval of the crew. Monitor ' s sole purpose now was to blockade the James River from any advances made by the newly constructed Virginia II , an ironclad ram.
In September Captain John P. Bankhead received orders to take command of Monitor , relieving Stevens, and was sent to Hampton Roads to take charge of the vessel. Upon arrival at Washington Monitor and her crew were greeted by a crowd of thousands of cheering admirers who came to see the ship that "saved the nation". Monitor was now a premier tourist attraction and the crowd was soon allowed on board to tour the vessel.
When Stodder and others came to close up the dock and ship one evening Stodder noted, When we came up to clean that night there was not a key, doorknob, escutcheon — there wasn't a thing that hadn't been carried away. Before Monitor was put into dry dock for repairs, Lincoln, Fox, various officials and a few of Worden's close friends arrived to ceremoniously review the vessel and pay respect to the crew and former commander Worden, who after a long and partial recovery arrived for the occasion. Entire army regiments were also directed to come by the navy yard and review the ship and honor the crew.
Monitor ' s crew assembled on deck in formation with their officers in front, while Lincoln, Fox and other guests stood near the turret. When Worden, with part of his face blackened from the wounds he received at Hampton Roads, came aboard, the heavy guns in the navy yard were fired in salute. Lincoln came forward and greeted Worden and then introduced him to some of the others.
After his formal greeting the crew swarmed around Worden and embraced and shook hands with their former commander and thanked God for his recovery and return.
Worden called each of them by name and spoke friendly to and complimented each of them personally. When order was restored the President gave a short speech about Worden's career. At Fox's request, Worden gave a speech to the gathering about his voyage from New York to Hampton Roads, the trials they were faced with along the way and of the great battle between Monitor and Virginia , while paying tribute to many of the officers and men involved.
In closing he gave special thanks to Ericsson, Lincoln, Welles and all who made construction of Monitor possible. The berth deck below was also enlarged and raised by removing some of the side storerooms and placing them below, thus reducing the height of the interior which now barely allowed the crew to stand upright. Several cranes were also added while interior improvements were made making the confining environment more livable.
A large blower that operated with its own engine was installed which drew fresh air down through the pilothouse. Each plate was inscribed with the name of the source from where the shell causing the dent was made. Merrimack, Fort Darling , etc. By November the ship was fully repaired and ready to return to service. The orders were received by the crew on Christmas Day, some of whom had been aboard Monitor on her harrowing journey from New York to Hampton Roads in March and were not pleased with the prospect of taking to the high seas once again.
Dana Green remarked, "I do not consider this steamer a sea going vessel". The crew celebrated Christmas aboard Monitor while berthed at Hampton Roads in what was described as a most merry fashion, while many other celebrations were occurring along the shore. The ship's cook was paid one dollar to prepare a meal for the crew befitting the day; it was received with mixed opinion.
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That day, Monitor was made ready for sea, her crew under strict orders not to discuss the impending voyage with anyone, but bad weather delayed her departure until 29 December. While the design of Monitor was well-suited for river combat, her low freeboard and heavy turret made her highly unseaworthy in rough waters. Under the command of John P. Using chalk and a blackboard, Bankhead wrote messages alerting Rhode Island that if Monitor needed help she would signal with a red lantern. Monitor was soon in trouble as the storm increased in ferocity.
Large waves were splashing over and completely covering the deck and pilot house so the crew temporarily rigged the wheel atop the turret which was manned by helmsman Francis Butts. Sometimes she would drop into a wave with such force the entire hull would tremble. Leaks were beginning to appear everywhere. Bankhead ordered the engineers to start the Worthington pumps , which temporarily stemmed the rising waters, but soon Monitor was hit by a squall and a series of violent waves and water continued to work its way into the vessel.
Right when the Worthington pump could no longer keep pace with the flooding, a call came from the engine room that water was gaining there. Realizing the ship was in serious trouble, Bankhead signaled Rhode Island for help and hoisted the red lantern next to Monitor ' s white running light atop the turret. He then ordered the anchor dropped to stop the ship's rolling and pitching with little effect, making it no easier for the rescue boats to get close enough to receive her crew.
He then ordered the towline cut and called for volunteers,  Stodder, along with crewmates John Stocking,  and James Fenwick volunteered and climbed down from the turret, but eyewitnesses said that as soon as they were on the deck Fenwick and Stocking were quickly swept overboard and drowned. Bankhead ordered the engineers to stop engines and divert all available steam to the large Adams centrifugal steam pump ;  but with reduced steam output from a boiler being fed wet coal, it too was unable to stem the rapidly rising water. Greene and Stodder were among the last men to abandon ship and remained with Bankhead who was the last surviving man to abandon the sinking Monitor.
In his official report of Monitor to the Navy Department, Bankhead praised Green and Stodder for their heroic efforts and wrote, "I would beg leave to call the attention of the Admiral and of the Department of the particularly good conduct of Lieutenant Greene and Acting Master Louis N. Stodder, who remained with me until the last, and by their example did much toward inspiring confidence and obedience on the part of the others. Forty-seven men were rescued by the life boats from Rhode Island. The Navy did not find it necessary to commission a board of inquiry to investigate the affair and took no action against Bankhead or any of his officers.
Some time later a controversy emerged over why Monitor sank. In the Army and Navy Journal , Ericsson accused the crew of drunkenness during the storm, being consequently unable to prevent the vessel from sinking. Stodder vigorously defended the crew and rebuked Ericsson's characterization of the crew and events and wrote to Pierce that Ericsson "covers up defects by blaming those that are now dead", pointing out that there were a number of unavoidable events and circumstances that led to the ship's sinking, foremost being the overhang between the upper and lower hulls which came loose and partially separated during the storm from slamming into the violent waves.
Stodder's account was corroborated by other shipmates.
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The Navy tested an "underwater locator" in August by searching an area south of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse for the wreck of Monitor. It found a foot Marx claimed to have discovered the wreck based on the idea she had drifted into shallow water north of the lighthouse before sinking. Marx said he had dived on the wreck and placed a Coke bottle with his name on it in one of the gun barrels, although he never provided any proof of his story. Interest in locating the ship revived in the early s and Duke University , the National Geographic Society and the National Science Foundation sponsored an expedition in August to search for the wreck using a towed sonar system.
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The Duke team was led by John G. Newton  no known relation to the Isaac Newton that served on the Monitor. They sent a camera down to photograph the wreck, but the pictures were so fuzzy as to be useless; on a second attempt the camera snagged something on the wreck and was lost. The sonar images did not match what they expected the wreck to look like until they realized that the sinking vessel had turned over while descending and was resting at the bottom upside down.
The team announced their discovery on 8 March Another expedition was mounted that same month to confirm the discovery and the research submersible Alcoa Sea Probe was able to take still photos and video of the wreck that confirmed it was Monitor. These photos revealed that the wreck was disintegrating and the discovery raised another issue.
Since the Navy had formally abandoned the wreck in , it could be exploited by divers and private salvage companies as it lay outside North Carolina's territorial limits. In , scientists were finally able to view the wreckage in person as the submersible Johnson Sea Link was used to inspect it. The Sea Link was able to ferry divers down to the sunken vessel and retrieve small artifacts. Navy interest in raising the entire ship ended in when Captain Willard F.
Searle Jr. The growing number of relics required conservation and a proper home so the U. Initial efforts in by Navy and NOAA divers to raise the warship's propeller were foiled by an abnormally stormy season off Cape Hatteras. Realizing that raising the whole wreck was impractical for financial reasons as well as the inability to bring up the wreck intact, NOAA developed a comprehensive plan to recover the most significant parts of the ship, namely her engine, propeller, guns, and turret.
It estimated that the plan would cost over 20 million dollars to implement over four years. The Navy divers, mainly from its two Mobile Diving and Salvage Units , would perform the bulk of the work necessary in order to train in deep sea conditions and evaluate new equipment. Another effort to raise Monitor ' s propeller was successful on 8 June , although the amount of effort required to work in the difficult conditions off Cape Hatteras was underestimated and the fewer than 30 divers used were nearly overwhelmed.
The dive season was mostly research oriented as divers investigated the wreck in detail, planning how to recover the engine and determining if they could stabilize the hull so that it would not collapse onto the turret. In the divers shored up the port side of the hull with bags of grout , installed the engine recovery system, an external framework to which the engine would be attached, in preparation for the next season, and made over five times as many dives as they had the previous season.
The dive season concentrated on raising the ship's steam engine and condenser. Hull plates had to be removed to access the engine compartment and both the engine and the condenser had to be separated from the ship, the surrounding wreckage and each other. A Mini Rover ROV was used to provide visibility of the wreck and divers to the support staff above water. The engine was raised on 16 July and the condenser three days later by the crane barge Wotan. Saturation diving was evaluated by the Navy that dive season on Monitor and proved to be very successful, allowing divers to maximize their time on the bottom.
It also proved to be successful once the dive tables were adjusted.
They removed as much of the debris from inside the turret as possible to reduce the weight to be lifted. Doubleday, NY, The Monitor vs. Ballantine Books, , pages. Mobile, The Haunted Book Shop, Loaded with great pictures. University of Alabama Press, Shippensburg, PA. White Mane Publishing Co. Service Records of Confederate Enlisted Marines , , typed pages, privately printed, hard to find, expensive. Naval Historical Foundation Publication, , 55 pages. This is an excellent collection of reasons for the participants who resigned to go to the defense of their respective states and eventually the Confederate States of America.
The booklet contains lists of men, birth places, residence, and many detailed dates that are important to know. Reading the first hand accounts of the officers who wrote them leaves no doubt that the war was simply over the right of a state to seceed and where one's loyalty was. Forget some of the nonsense you've heard since then, this was from the men who were involved. Everyone needs a copy of this booklet as a basis to understand the early beginnings of the CSN and subsequent marvelous improvisations to follow. Nine Men in Gray.
Doubleday, Chapter 4: Confederate Corsair. One of the feature articles is about Lieutenant Charles W. Armorer of the Confederacy. Stephen R. Benziger Brothers, Inc. Secretary of the CS Navy. Served the entire war. Mallory: Confederate Navy Chief. Chapel Hill, Univ. The only Secretary of the Confederate Navy. He served the whole war. Daring Sea Warrior. Franklin Buchanan. Includes his history and experiences before the formation of the CSA. Ironclad of the Roanoke.
Confederate Military History. NY, Thomas Yoseloff, The Confederate States Navy. Campaigns of the Civil War. The Navy in the Civil War. Confederate Military History, vol. Soley, and the Atlantic Coast by Daniel Ammann. Memoirs of E. Very good details on individuals like the Register of Officers from where much of it was obtained. Thanks to Robert Hawks, Director for this info. The Wilmington Campaign.
Odyssey in Gray. A Diary of Confederate Service, The part involving Capt. I can only presume the rest of the book is the same. Do not rely on any info from this book without triple checking it out. Fort Lowry and Raiders on the Rappahannock. Vantage Press, , pages. Limpsfield, Dragon's World Ltd. Confederate Goliath. The Battle of Fort Fisher. Richmond, Philadelphia, Ray Riling, 2nd edition, This information is also in Well's book on CSN. A sketch of Henry Lea Graves Tuscaloosa, Confederate Publishing Co.
Published by author in Has a lot of information not regularly seen. It is full of names and muster rolls including coast guard. The Last of the Confederate Privateers. Crescent Books, Gray Raiders of the Sea. Camden, ME. Mentions Chickamauga and Rappahannock. The Capture of New Orleans, Baton Rouge, LA. State Univ. Sea Dogs of the Sixties. Hinds, John W. Hoehling, A. Thunder At Hampton Roads. Four Years in the Confederate Navy. Athens, Univ.
This has been reprinted by the Washington State Univ. Press as " Confederate Raider in the North Pacific , Gallant Rebel. Rutgers Univ. The Blockade Runners. Port Salerno, Florida Classics Library, The Shenandoah or the Last Confederate Cruiser. Hunt was an officer Acting Masters Mate on the ship. A Man and His Boat. Carter, CSN. This is a rare book we have just located. It is quite expensive but the only biography of him with assistance from his son John R. Tattnall, CSMC.
Confederate Corsair. Stackpole Books, A story of Lt. Read, CSN. This is an excellent book full of very good details. Jones, Wilbur D. Recollections of a Naval Life. Neale Books, Danger Beneath The Waves. A history of the Confederate submarine H. Privately printed by the authors in They are probably the most knowledgable persons on this subject and build great reproductions used in forts and museums. This book is a wealth of information and well researched with many sketches and images. Colonel Lamb's Story of Fort Fisher. Baltimore, The Norman Remington Co.
This is the first biography of the only full Confederate Admiral. A History of the Confederate Navy. Annapolis, Naval Institute Press, Confederate Commando and Fleet Surgeon: Dr. Daniel Burr Conrad. The story and letters written by Dr. Good first hand information from one who participated.
Rebel Flags Afloat. Winchester, Mass. Neale Books. Written by Capt. Nautilus or Cruising Under Canvas. He subsituted different characters for the real ones causing everyone to guess who was who. The writing of this book is what sealed his marriage to Emma Martin, his son's Eugene sister in law. He dictated it and she was the one who wrote it down. Proud New Flags. A brilliant historical novel of the Confederate Navy in the years Lippincott, NY, Well written. The Physical Geography of the Sea.
Nelson and Sons, London, , pages. Full of his findings of his research on currents and most anything to do with the sealanes. A great work by a man who was known around the world as THE expert. He was also very active in the CSN and well respected. The Confederate Ironclads.
A ballad of Nova Scotia in the Sixties. Imperial Publishing, Halifax, A ballad type story of the Confederate cruiser. Great Britain and the Confederate Navy Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Countryvise Limited, , pages. The story of the blockade runner Lelia and it's unfortunate loss off England. This is the only known story of this ship. Civil War Sea Battles. Combined Books, Phila, PA. A generous number of sketches and images, even though it repeats the often made error of incorrectly labeling the picture of Capt.
John Maffitt as 'James'. The Rebel and the Rose. Cumberland House, Nashville, TN. Semple, who was involved with President John Tyler's family. Contains new information.
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