Kristin L. Johannsen ,. Professor Mason shows that Rilke identified England with forces which were robbing his Europe of its spiritual significance. The central passages of the Duino Elegies are thus seen from a fresh perspective. Eudo C. Mason ,. Naphta in THOMAS MANN'S Magic Mountain the elaborate and far-reaching consequences he derived from it, was, at bottom, not different from the kind of prejudice that many people of all countries easily have against a language of which they know very little. Thus English and also French Edgar W.
Schneider ,. In this chapter we will learn about the earliest and most deeply rooted processes of colonization which have shaped the English language, in what used to be known as the "Old World" and the "New World. North America 76 4. This book also covers the pedagogical implications of English as an international language; and addresses key questions with regard to the teaching of English. It is precisely the observation of the polymorphous nature of the English language worldwide that prompted the wish to capture this richness and diversity in the corpus I have been compiling at the University of Vienna, the Vienna— Oxford International Corpus of English VOICE?
For in order to be able to acknowledge this polymorphous nature you need to be able to perceive it, and in order to perceive it, you need to document it. One of the most impressive insights of corpus-based The impact the Spanish master and his Don Quixote had is to be traced, above all, in one play and two major novels, and one can observe that Fielding, more and more, artistically transformed the material he found in the Spanish Tom McArthur ,.
The present volume offers contributions from linguists and literary scholars that explore this common ground in a spirit of open interdisciplinary dialogue. Leading authorities assess the state of the art to suggest directions for further research, with substantial case studies ranging over a wide variety of topics - from the legitimacy of language norms of lingua franca communication to the recognition of newer post-colonial varieties of English in the online OED. Four regional sections treat the Caribbean including the diaspora , Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australasia and the Pacific Rim.
Each section maintains a careful balance between linguistics and literature, and external and indigenous perspectives on issues. The book is the most balanced, complete and up-to-date treatment of the topic to date. Christian Mair ,. It gives a comprehensive account of our current knowledge of variation in the use of the English language around the world. Overview papers, written by specialist authors, survey the social context in which English is spoken in those parts of the world where it is widely used.
Case study papers then provide representative examples of the empirical research that has been carried out into the English spoken in the areas covered by the overview. The volume therefore contributes both to our understanding of the English language worldwide and to a more general understanding of language as it is used in its social context. It assesses the extent of our current knowledge of variation in the English language and points to gaps in our understanding which future research might set out to remedy. Jenny Cheshire ,. In that time it has supplanted the original languages of the continent, and recruited most descendants of non- English speaking immigrants, so that today it is the overwhelmingly dominant tongue throughout Australia.
Several features of the Australian situation yield a unique insight on the development and diversification of English : its geographic isolation , its social International Perspectives on Teaching English in a Globalised World The renowned and highly experienced editors of this book bring together the leading voices in contemporary English education under the banner of the International Federation for the Teaching of Englis Selengkapnya Informasi lebih lengkap Buku-buku lain.
Sovereignty and Possession in the English New World The Legal Foundations of Empire, How did English notions of sovereignty, empire and law impact their methods of settlement in the Americas? Even committed ufologists admit that the vast majority of occurrences have a logical explanation. Walking to the top of Bleaklow Moor, more than 2, feet above sea level, it is not difficult to see how this valley got its dark reputation.
Forbidding gritstone crags rise up on all sides amid sparse clumps of heather. And when the wind drops, there is absolute silence. Barren, chilling and hostile, nature not man is firmly in control of the place Daniel Defoe dubbed 'the most desolate, wild and abandoned country in England'. ON THE summit lies a vast array of twisted metal — one of the most spectacular wrecks that litter Bleaklow. It is of an American B29 which crashed in on a routine flight, killing all 13 crew. Now poppies and old wooden crosses decorate the slowly rusting undercarriage, while the engines lie at a drunken angle, and a near complete wing has been tossed some 20 feet away.
There is something undeniably unsettling about the wreck, and it is no wonder that local people claim to have seen the ghost of Captain Landon R Tanner, the pilot, resplendent in his leather flying jacket, wandering among the ruins. It has been suggested that he, like many pilots, saw the Longdendale Lights and headed towards them thinking they represented the aerodrome and safety, rather than the surrounding wicked peaks. The ethereal lights flicker on the moorland and hills, most commonly by an area known as 'Devil's Elbow' and sometimes appear as a ball of motionless light, and sometimes as a dancing string of lights.
The Mountain Rescue Team have been called out endless times to investigate — only to find nothing. The reports have become so regular that police no longer pass on sightings of mystery lights to us unless they feel it is a genuine sighting of a red distress flare. It would have been about four or five miles away, and it just sat there, not getting brighter or dimmer.
Also, it was far too large. Then, there wasn't a cloud in the sky, so it couldn't have been a beam reflecting off a cloud. To this day, it is something I cannot explain. Not that people haven't tried. Police point out that the Longdendale Moors lie between a major international air route for traffic approaching Manchester's Ringway airport, and so landing lights from aircraft could explain sightings of moving lights. Others may have mistaken the flashing beacon of the Holme Moss TV transmitter to the north of the valley.
Ball lightning and arcing from the pylons that criss-cross the valley bottom have also been suggested as possible explanations. Popular folk tales claim the lights are the phantom legions of Roman soldiers who tramp across the moors on the first full night of spring. The ghostly glow is said to be flames from their torches as the auxiliaries marched at night, hoping to avoid the ferocious Celtic Brlgantes tribes in the hills. For Michael Greaves, who lives in Glossop, a small town on the outskirts of the valley, there is another possible cause.
Mr Greaves, a spokesman for Glossop Paranormal Investigators, says: 'In , the Wbodhead tunnel in the valley was built by Irish navvies, forced to live in appalling conditions. There was a cholera epidemic, 1 navvies died and were burled In nconsecrated ground. A year ago lebbie Pair, a local internet onsultant set up a webcam a ideo camera linked up to the aternet trained on Devil's Elbow. Now more than a thousand isitors log on to her site www. TO DATE, nothing more exotic than some birds, clouds and a model aircraft have been caught on the site, but Mrs Fair lays such Is the interest she has generated that she will continue to lather evidence.
It is suggested the lights are so- sailed 'earth lights' — phenomena vhich occur during earthquakes when the tectonic plates of rock are put under tremendous strain and the ensuing friction produces sparking and glowing lights. This theory is backed by Dr Roger Musson, a seismologist with the British Geological Survey, who says scientists are presently trying to solve the puzzle of earthlights through laboratory experiments. It means that there is an extremely powerful energy force which could be used in future.
Experiments show rocks with a heavy quartz content, like Longdendale's, can cause ionlsa- tionTn the atmosphere, inducing altered states of consciousness In some people — which could explain the many tales of paranor- mal experience in the valley. Walking in Olossop, a small but bustling town In the sunshine, everything seems so friendly and normal it is hard to believe that scores of ghost stories abound.
TTet there scarcely seems to be a pub or inn without its resident spectre — not all of which can be put down to an excess of the usual spirits behind the bar. ATYPICAL tale is that of the 19th-century Norfolk Arms, where a ten-year- old girl, her hair in ringlets, has been seen running along the bar before ducking down and apparently disappearing. According to Debbie Pair, during excavations, a previously unknown staircase to the cellar was unearthed at the exact spot at which the little girl used to appears in the shape of a colourful butterfly alighting on actors at the final curtain call, and has been seen so many times that a butterfly is now incorporated into the Partington Players' letterhead.
Not to be outdone, the rival Tesco supermarket in Olossop told the local paper soon after that they, too, had their own resident ghost, a grey-haired man in wing collars and a long black coat. However, while these are all good spme-chuung tales to be swopped on a Hallowe'en evening, Dr Clarke thinks they also have a more serious purpose as well — and one that we should be treasuring.
These Include the local theatre, newspaper office, railway tunnel and two local churches. Mr Oreaves says he has been called In to investigate the Co-Op superstore in Olossop after frightened staff claimed to have seen a small fair-haired child in a crinoline disappear around the superstore's Post Office counter. He became convinced it was the ghost of Eliza Ann Hawk, a child who had been killed In while running through the railway yard UL. If we lived in Scotland or Ireland or almost any other country, these stories would be cherished and noted down as part of our heritage.
But because we are English, we get rather embarrassed and dont take it seriously. But we should. There in front of us is the very rare white mountain hare, traditionally seen as a wizard or witch's familiar, It pauses, eyes us and then vanishes in a leap. Perhaps, comforting as all the scientific explanations are, it was warning us mat Longdendale still has some secrets to keep.
I declined to take any information over the 'phone requesting instead that he put the details in writing, copying it to all those he included in his previous letters. This he agreed to do. Section 40 Sec AS 2 f-0 I f-. Straw: Our estimate is that any change in the number of cases going to these courts will be de minimis. Miss Widdecombe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department 1 what factors underlay his estimate of a the cost savings that would be made and b the number of defendants who would be tried in the magistrates' courts rather than the Crown court under i the Criminal Justice Mode of Trial No.
Miss Widdecombe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if it is his policy that appeals to the Crown Court against magistrates' decisions as to mode of trial under the provisions of the Criminal Justice Mode of Trial No. Straw: The intention is that the appeal should be heard by the Resident Judge or by a deputy nominated by the senior presiding Judge.
The Government believe that most appeals will be determined on the basis of the papers. It would however be open to the parties to seek to make oral representations, which the judge could agree to hear if he considered it necessary in the interests of justice; the arrangements for such an oral hearing would be a matter for the judge's discretion.
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Miss Widdecombe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what estimate he has made of the length of the average waiting time for a trial in a magistrates court if the Criminal Justice Mode of Trial No. Straw: The magistrates' courts deal with over , either-way cases annually and will have no difficulty in absorbing the additional cases which it is expected that they will retain as a result of the Bill. Asylum Seekers Chelmsford - Mr. Roche: The number and location of asylum seekers accommodated under the national asylum support scheme throughout the country will depend on where accommodation, whether in the private or public sector, is made available to the Home Office for that purpose, on where there are existing ethnic minority communities and on where there is the potential for support services to be developed.
The Home Office intends to secure accommodation from local authorities through Regional Consortia. Chelmsford is in the Eastern Region Consortium. V Freedom of Information Mr. Dalyell: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will include in the code of practice on freedom of information a provision that, where a request is made for information about a third party, the holder of the information should consult the third party before deciding what information is to be released and in what form.
Mike O'Brien: I can confirm that this will be covered by the code of practice, a working draft of which my right hon. Global Cultural Diversity Congress Mr. Mike O'Brien: No. Disclosure of minutes of meetings of the Commission for Racial Equality is a matter for the Commission. The Unit provided names of possible speakers and suggested topics for workshops. Lidington: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will list the persons who wrote messages of support in the Global Cultural Diversity Congress registration brochure published by the Commission for Racial Equality, indicating in each case when they were first informed that the Global Cultural Diversity Congress had been cancelled, and by whom.
Recommendation 2. Sec AS 2 could explain the policy aspectsTsf the Department's limited interest in the subject and provide some sanitised examples of the sort of material held on Departmental files. A Departmental Records expert might sit in to answer any questions about early release of MOD files; and a member of D News's staff would need to be present.
Tuning 3. Public interest in 'UFOs' and science fiction related issues alien abduction, animal mutilation, crop circles etc has grown rapidly in recent years fuelled by films, TV programmes, books and media articles purporting to relate actual experiences or reconstruct alleged 'UFO' sightings.
Sec AS 2 could explain the policy aspects of the Department's limited interest in the subject and provide some sanitised examples of the sort of material held on Departmental files. A Departmental Records expert would be required to sit in to answer any questions about early release of MOD files; and a member of D News's staff would also need to be present. There will be no control over what cascades from it so far as the tabloids and specialist press are concerned. Nevertheless, should Minister consider fe39? As a first step, the Department in then- dealings with the media should stop repeating his name; use of the press line at para 4 [sic] of the reference should be discontinued immediately.
Please find attached the following closed 'UFO' files to be held in archives. Due to the public interest in this subject, these files are for permanent retention and should, in time, be transferred to the Public Record Office in accordance with the Public Records Act of and If you have any queries regarding these files, please contact me on the number given below.
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To provide a note on the Department's interest in 'UFOs '. To note. Military Task 9 is to maintain the integrity of the UK's airspace. This requirement is met by the continuous recognised air picture radar and an air policing capability Any threat to the UK Air Defence Region would be handled in the light of the particular circumstances at the time it might, if deemed appropriate, involve the scrambling or diversion of RAF air defence aircraft.
From that perspective, reports sent to us of 'UFO' sightings are examined, but consultation with air defence staff and others as necessary is considered only where there is sufficient evidence to suggest a breach of UK air space: such as reports from credible witnesses pilots, air traffic controllers etc ; those supported by photographic, video or documentary evidence; corroboration by a number of witnesses; or are of a phenomenon currently being observed and might, therefore, be capable of detection.
Only a handful of reports have been received in recent years in these categories and further investigation of them has found no evidence of a threat. We understand that there are currently no plans to set up a national spaceguard agency; the potential threat of impact by near earth objects such as asteroids is taken very seriously but they regard this as an issue where a common international approach is essential.
Reports made elsewhere, either to military establishments, air traffic control centres or the civilian police, all eventually make tneir way to Sec AS 2 where each report is considered only to establish whether it has any defence significance. Some sighting reports and letters were received last year; so far this year clSO reports and letters have been received Sec AS 2 is not constituted as a 'UFO' information bureau.
There are no defence resources allocated tor this purpose and, where there is no evidence in a report of defence concern no action 1S taken to try and identify what might have been seen. From the types ot descriptions generally received, aircraft or natural phenomena probably account for most of the observations. Some 'ufologists' are unhappy with MOD's limited interest. A small number lobby vociferously for defence funds to be used for 'UFO' research, have their own agenda tor such work and use all possible avenues eg writing to the Prime Minister, otner uovemment Departments, the media etc to pursue their aims All such approaches find their way to MOD, Sec AS for action.
Prior to 1 it was the case that 'UFO' files were destroyed after five years as there was insufficient interest in the subject to warrant their retention However, since all 'UFO' files have been preserved and routinely released to the Public Record Office at the year point. We have looked carefully to see whether this is possible. However, in the absence of a Departmental-wide file database and without knowing the details of all the originating branches, a manual search of in excess of one million files at two main MOD archives would be necessary to locate and list them.
In November last year the location of some 55 'UFO' files was established. The files contain personal details of all those contacting and corresponding with the Department. Legal advice was sought: the Public Record Act gives an implied override of the Department's duty to protect the third party confidentiality by use of the year rule. Release after that date would present no problems to MOD, but release in advance would lay the Department open to the risk of legal action for breach of confidence.
To remove the personal details from these files would be a time consuming task. The knock-on effect would be a major disruption to the Department's overall programme for the release of files to the PRO and cannot be justified. A third book, about an alien invasion of the UK, is likely to be published next month. The two books already published resulted in an increase in media and public interest in 'UFOs ', which in turn led to temporary increases in the number of enquiries and sighting reports received.
Full text of "UK UFO Documents Part 2"
Mr Pope continues to be employed by the Department. There are no plans to change Government policy on 'UFOs' or implement a research programme to investigate 'ufologists' claims. As soon as possible in the event of any furthermedia interest. Under the year rule, a total of 13 'UFO' files from have been passed to the Public Record Office and will be released on 1 January It is likely they are misrepresenting the arrangements for the Department's release of files, perhaps hoping to force MOD into expanding their limited interest in publicly reported unidentified sightings.
Prior to 1 it was the case that 'UFO' files were destroyed after five years as there was insufficient interest in the subject to warrant their retention but since 1 all 'UFO' files have been preserved and routinely released to the Public Record Office at the year point. Staff would need to be diverted from essential tasks to manually scrutinise and remove all personal details on the files and the knock-on effect would be a major disruption to MOD's overall programme for release of files to the PRO.
MOD's interest is limited to establishing from any reported sightings it receives whether the UK Air Defence Region has been breached by hostile military activity, and responding to any associated public correspondence. It deals with a wide range of RAF-related issues. To provide Lord Hill-Norton with the outcome of our consideration of his request for the early release of files on the subject of "unidentified flying objects". Recnmnn-nHatinr 2. That USofS responds in terms of the attached draft letter. Backg round 4. He approached the department earlier this year undercover of Reference A pointing to the public interest in this topic and to the forthcoming Freedom of Information Act, requesting that all closed files on the subject of UFOs be released in advance of the normal, 30 year point.
In his submission dated 3 April reference B DOMD advised that in the region of 55 files were held with planned releases dates of , in addition a further 12 with a release date of were in the early stages of preparation for transfer to the PRO. These files concern correspondence from members of the public reporting such occurrences, therefore question of personal confidentiality had to be resolved. Outco me of our review 6. The first option was considered time-consuming and, given the fact that we would be attempting to trace individuals whose addresses were 25 plus years old, impractical.
It i s estimated some man hours woma be required and so as not to adversely affect our existing review and transfer programme the task spread over a six month period. Their advice is that the Public Record Act gives an implied override of the Department's duty to protect third party confidentially by use of the 30 year rule. Release of records pertaining to that period are, therefore, not a problem but the Department would be at risk of legal action for breach of confidence if it released documents containing the personal details of members of the public before the 30 year point.
We have therefore concluded that, having rejected options a and b , we are unable to make a block release of the files before the 30 year point. A draft letter to Lord Hill-Norton to this effect is attached. But in keeping an eye out for the Soviet aircraft that routinely probed our air defences during the Cold War, It soon became clear that there were other more exotic craft operating in British airspace. They fUl more than files, files to which I have had access.
If, and when, they are made available publicly, I can promise some. But what they saw was like no air- craft they had ever encoun- tered before; a large metallic, triangular object which they chased before losing it among. This time J' the deputy base. Radiation readings were subsequently taken from the landing site in the forest and were found to peak in the three indentations where the craft had touched down in a clearing. There are a number of intriguing aerial encounters In Britain's so-called X-flles, too. No adequate explana- tion was ever forthcoming.
Last year, also over the North Sea, a ft UFO was pursued by two fighter jets before it took off at rr. There were two such cases in , both over Kent. In , the pilots of a Boeing encountered what they described as a brightly lit UFO while on their approach to Manchester Airport, and believed that it had passed only yards from their aircraft. This incident was investigated by the Civil Aviation Authority but remains a mystery. One of the most fascinating cases that I investigated related to an incident that occurred in the early hours of March 31, The UFO was described by one of the military witnesses as being a vast, triangular craft only marginally smaller than ajumbo Jet.
It flew slowly over the base at a height of ft, firing a narrow beam of light at the ground, before flying off at high speed. But the files also contain reports Of alien abductions, the appearance of crop circles and animal mutilations, all of which have been linked with UFOs. THE MoD was drawn Into the crop-circle debate in — five years after they first started appearing — when a farmer in Middle Wallop, Hampshire, found a nuintuplet of crop circles and Blamed the local Army air corps base.
A Lt-Col Edgecombe investigated and submitted photographs and reports to the MOD, a routine proce- dure but one which gave credence to the UFO link and allegations that then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher had asked for a report on the phenomemon. I have reviewed all the theories about crop circles and, while many are hoaxes, there are those which have yet to be explained; for example, why do crop samples taken from these 'genuine' circles Show distinct cellular changes. Unfortunately, releasing the files Is a tactic that some people think could backfire.
A similar initiative in the U S. Colonel Corso claimed that, he'd seen the bodies, and that his Job at the Pentagon involved finding ways to use the technological secrets gleaned from the debris of the craft. Conspiracy theorists love this sort of thing, and are unlikely to be satisfied by any release of papers that doesn t support their own theories. My three years of official research into the UFO phenomenon changed my life for ever.
I'd come into the Job as a sceptic, but came to believe that some UFOs might well be extra-terrestrial. If these files are to be made public, I think people are in for a big surprise, and I. Two men had earlier roughly draggged her screaming across a garage orecourt at Reading, Berks, during the rush-hour. She was viciously beaten and thrown into the van. Detective Superintendent Trevor Davtes said: "We are extremely worried. The CCTV footage torn the garage has been seen by police. The attackers, said to be black and in their 20s, struck as Andrea pulled up Sfoane Square, London.
Police found little Bradley George being cradled by his robbing mother. He died four lours later In hospital from lead injuries. The tot's mum Samantha Gorge, Neighbour Jeannette lussey said: "I heard a voman screaming and a 'oiing boy crying. Samantha ;ame out with her face cov- jrod In blood and was taken iway in an ambulance. They will include photos and de- tails of every UFO investigation in the past :t0 years. But the facts about most later mysteries are still locked away. He quizzed ministers about the base. The Yanks recently re- leased a report of the notorious Roswell inci- dent in The move, part of a government drive lo end unnecessary se- crecy, is sure to send UFO spotters into a frenzy.
Hover US airmen from two nearby bases claim the object rose hovering out of the trees, then blasted into space al an incredible speed. The flood if bogus asylum seekers? The Jaily selling-out to Brussels on ssues like British beef? Education would be right at che heart of the speech. There would be a law to guaran- tee to parents the power to do iomething about bad schools by sacking school managements. Then we'd give patients in the NHS a unique guarantee. We would help pensioners and savers by halving the startling rate of tax on savings and protect the homes and assets of people who save for their long-term care.
And we'd show everyone that Britain Is no pushover in Eu- away enough of this country's powers and rights to Brussels. The next Conservative govern- ment will make sure Britain is in Europe but not run by Europe. So what is our Prime Minister doing about the issues? If you don't believe me, just wait to see what the government an- nounces in the Queen's Speech, [t is likely to propose: A NEW law about how politi- cal parties are run, a new law on the organisation of local govern- ment, a new law on motorway tolls and car park taxes, a new law creating a Right to Roam.
None of these iaws will do any- thing to tackle the main problems that actually matter to the major- ity of people. The next Conservative govern- ment would not duck the chal- lenge. Our Queen's Speeches would turn the commonsense of the people Into commonsense policies lor the country. TODAY, on Remem- brance Day, it's more important than ever to I remember our debt to those who gave their lives to protect our country and the ideals we stand for. It's important, too, that we continue repaying the debt to the whole generation who sac- rificed so much. We've done a lot.
And nothing has a great impact if the government fails. Whether Labour could be trusted on the economy was why many of you thought long-ana hard before voting for us. It's not al- ways been the fault of past La- bour governments. Now inflation's low and gn tar- get. Government borrowing Js under control. We're creating a climate where business can succeed and in turn create jobs and prosper- ity by boosting skills. Cynics think it will all turn out to have been pie In the sky. They are packed with classified" infor- mation on suspected sightings of UFOs and other strange phenomenon being probed by a small team of civil servants.
But now these documents - Britain's very own X Files - will finally be revealed to the public, thanks to a Liverpool MP. Defence Minister and Walton MP Peter Kil- foyle is to throw open the doors within the the next three months so that the public can inspect the papers on thousands of cases of UFO sightings which have for decades been shrouded in mystery. Although Mr Kilfoyle has told colleagues that he is "not convinced" about the existence of aliens, we are now being given the chance to make up our own minds.
Every year, around incidents are reported to the small team of MoD agents currently housed with the small team of dedicated Secretariat Air Staff 2 officials who sit in the MOD'S giant White- hall building. But rather than prowling the country investigating. They will then check if the mysterious f he triiitifi of N W sightings rtttay be thiBi'e UFO spotters in the North West will hope to discover what has been behind some local sightings when the secret files are made public.
These include a case in Burnley where a zombie-like man in black calling himself the Commander interrogated a young girl to such an extent that she was traumatised for years. Another strange incident occurred when a woman was followed by a disc towards Runcorn, She actually drove at 90mph to get away from it in the hope that she would be stopped by the police and they could help her.
Twenty-five years ago, farmer Hugh Lloyd, of Llandrillo, North Wales, was a prime witness to a crashed spacecraft containing the bodies of several alien-like figures in the Ber- wyn mountains.
However, once checked, the records are simply stowed in a filing cabinet. Although some details of UFO sightings in the Fifties and Sixties have been made public under rules which lift restriction on docu- ments after 30 years, this is the first time that contemporary sightings have been revealed.
Another closely guarded secret came when US airmen from two bases in Suffolk reported sightings of a triangular three-legged space- ship in Rendlesham Forest. They claimed the object rose hovering out of the trees before blasting into space at an incredible speed in RAF investigators cordoned off the area, but their findings have never been revealed. Sources at Westminster say that defence minister Mr Kilfoyle is ready to let the public see the files because he has looked at them and believes none of them show any evidence of alien beings..
The overwhelming majority of the cases are indeed explained away as sightings of air- craft landing lights, weather balloons and stars. It is widely accepted now that the secrecy surrounding the files is unnecessary.
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Restrictions were slapped on the files in the sixties during the height of the. Cold War when Britain was worried that someone may unwittingly stumble on to a sighting of a secret weapon being developed. But one local UFO researcher is sceptical about the government's motives. Anthony Eccles, from Halewood, an accred- ited investigator with the British Unidenti- fied Flying Object Research Association, said: "I wouldn't have any great expectations. I'm suspicious as to why a defence minister is now opening the door to British intelligence after they've lied to me time and time again.
He said: "I then consult Bidston Observa- tory for weather conditions before making a final analysis to compare the position of lights in the sky with things like planets. Firefighters evacuated household- ers from surrounding streets at 1. Three fire crews were needed to extinguish the fire, although the cause is not yet known. Probe into claims that Ford broke low price pledge CAR giant Ford is facing a Government inquiry into allegations it has broken a promise to custom- ers over prices. The company promised customers who bought a Ford Focus between September and the end of the year, that if it later cut the price of the car, they would be reimbursed the difference.
A spokeswoman for the DTI said a number of different officials would be involved in the investi- gation as it could have implications on a range of matters from consumer interests to competition between car firms. Dr Howells will also call on the Advertising Standards Authority to investigate whether Ford published any misleading advertising relating to the offer. But Ford dismissed the claim it had broken its promise, saying the cars sold at a lower price were old, unsold stock and so the cut was not a price reduction across the range.
Ministers are ready to let the truth be. The documents and photos cover investigation of UFO sightings over the last 50 years. What people would like to know from the X Files is how the authorities planned to deal with any alien landings. Nick Pope, who for three years headed the Ministry of Defence department investigat- ing UFO sightings, says: "The most important thing for lead- ers to do would be to find out who the aliens were, what they wanted, and to try to find a peaceful resolution.
He adds; "Until there was anything to announce I don't suppose people would be told anything. It would have to be truthful and positive. Ninety per cent are explained by natural phenom- ena like aircraft lights, satel- lites, meteors and airships. But, alarmingly, the others remain a mystery. Nick's new novel. Operation Thunder Child, predicts what would happen in the event of an alien invasion. He said: "Part of the reason for writing it was to focus thought on what we should do.
Here are five cases that changed his mind. At 2am on Boxing Day, two patrolmen saw a large metallic triangular object. Two nights later, a military team investi- gated a similar sighting. They got within yards of the moving red. An officer reported three star-like objects in the sky which gave off red, green and blue lights. High levels of radia- tion were found where the craft had landed. No explanation for the sighting was ever provided.
The near- miss was investigated but never explained. Current Z-. Thank you for your minute at reference, the contents of which you discussed today with the Under Secretary of State. This was subsequently discussed with you and D News" staff although no decision had been reache d.
You explained the Department's position on UFOs and the early release of files, as set out at reference, which the Under gwT-grary nf Srar. The Minister remains keen to offer Wa briefing to behind it. I should be grateful to see this advice before the end of this week. I agreed the following additional press lines with the Duty Press Officer last night, which could be used if pressed on whether Mr Kilfoyle had made any decisions or given any commitments on the publication of UFO files: Mr Kilfoyle has asked officials to consider whether there is any additional information which could be provided in response to requests about UFO reports, in the interests of removing the aura of mystery which surrounds the topic.
He has not yet received that advice and no decisions have been taken. File originally released In a sanitised form. Extracts subsequently released! No 3 Article on Flying Saucers. They contain between them more than 1 5, Intelligence records selected for permanent preservation. I expect to hear from the PRO today about when we are releasing these files. So far as I'm aware there is only the usual release planned in January. Do you know any more? As soon as possible in the event of any further media interest.
The files are withheld until that time to protect the personal details names and addresses of members of the public reporting what they have seen and themselves failed to identify. The files do not contain highly classified material two examples are provided herewith. MOD'S interest is limited to establishing from any reported sightings it receives whether the UK Air Defence Region has been breached by hostile military activity, and responding to any associated public correspondence. HAT do you think re the most urgent blems facing Brit- fay? The crisis in our health service which means people are waiting longer and longer lor treatment?
The desperate paralysis on- our roads and public transport? If next week's Queen's Speech was setting out the programme of the next Conservative govern- ment, I'll tell you what Would be in it. Education would be right at the heart of the speech. We would introduce a tough law to make sure unemployed people who can work take the jobs that are offered to them— or lose their unemployment benefit. We would help pensioners and savers by halving the startling rate pf. We would propose a Budget that would put an end to La- bour's stealth taxes with this open and honest Tax Guarantee: we'll cut the overall burden of tax over the 1 lifetime of a parlia- ment.
And we'd show everyone that Britain is no pushover in Eu- rope. This government has signed away enough of this country's powers and rights to Brussels. It is likely to propose: A NEW law about how politi- cal parties are run; a new law on the organisation of local govern- ment, a new law oh motorway tolls and car park taxes, a new law creating a Right to Roam. None of these laws will do any- thing to tackle the main problems that actually matter to the major- ity of people. Our Queen's Speeches would turn the coramonsense of the people into coramonsense policies for the country. We are half way through this 1M-1 lluP!
It's not al-! Mcn I W. And we re also creating a :. They are the j guiding principles of this govern- : ment. Fifteen hundred of them are to lose their jobs as seven plants specially set up to provide work for them close down. The bitter blow follows months of negotiations between their trade unions and Remploy, the employer. In August the workers were told that any employee who wanted to stay at a Remploy factory could do so and that no plants would close.
Tomorrow they will be told the truth, with management blaming the job losses on a five-year freeze in their government grant. When Remploy plants were first set up after World War II they were de- scribed as 'factories fit for heroes. They befriended the mobsters, kept track of their movements and tipped off the law at the crucial moment. Ministers have looked, at them and decided that there is nothing too sen- sitive to hold back. Enthusiasts are hoping at last to learn the truth about all the incident?
Then, despite their victory, came the pointless violence when 4Q0 Eng- lish fans went on the rampage in the streets of Glasgow. Detective Superintendent Trevor Davles said: "We are extremely worried. If this woman can get In touch with us she should. LEE Hi Chung. The tot's mum Samantha George, 20, and brother Christopher, five, also suf- fered head Injuries In the attack at the two-bed coun- cil house m Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales. Samantha came out with her face cov- ered m blood and was taken away m an ambulance.
They will include photos and de- tails of every UFO investigation in the past 30 years. Hover US airmen from two nearby bases claim the object rose hovering out of the trees, then blasted into space at an incredible speed. RAF investigators cordoned off the area, but their findings are still a closely- guarded secret. Among them, is the famous inci- dent in which year-old Anne Heston was sworn to secrecy after she reported seeing a star-like object shooting out red and green flames above her home In Taunton, Somerset. He quizzed ministers about the base, but never got a satisfactory answer.
Several sightings in of a bright light above the Thames in London could also be explained. The Yanks recently re- leased a report of the notorious Roswell inci- dent in , in which alien corpses were alleg- edly seen at a secret New Mexico air base. He said: "My experi- ences convinced me that UFOs are a real and threatening phe- nomenon. A source said: "These files are of huge public interest. They paint a fasci- nating picture of how UFO reports were investigated-and what would hap- pen if aliens ever did land in Britain.
Turn to Page 26 now and iiiMii. Last Wednesday's Lotto num- bers were: 8, 15, 18, 26, 32, Bonus number: Last night's numbers were: 5, 8, 9, 16, 23, Bonus Eastern coasts win" be dull as cloud and the occasional shower stream in off the North Sea. Suburban prim. Pubs were rocking' and settee springs in homes up and down the land got a right pounding as England hero Paul pummelled the Scots at Glasgow's Hampden Park with two great first-half goals.
And boy, did we go wild. Celebra- tions lasted long into the night with supporters dancing in the streets. At Hampden the afternoon was marred by some mindless England louts who went on the rampage through Glasgow after the game. But for the massive telly audience up and down the land the first leg of the Euro qualifier-dubbed the Battle of Britain-was a resounding success. TV bosses were punching the air along with the fans.
Together with the Wembley return on Wednesday, viewing figures should hit 30 million. And if you were anywhere near a screen yesterday, it was easy to see why. At London's Sports Cafe more than 2, people were crammed into the bar by kick-off time. The crowd had already roared themselves hoarse- singing Skinner and Baddiel's Three Lions anthem— well before the game began.
Richard Peterson, 30, was one of them— like so many thousands he had tried to get a ticket and failed. Another fan, year-old Chris Carter, told how he had travelled up from Brighton just to watch the game on TV in London. It's very loud. It was well worth it. After the second the chant was "Easy, Easy". And the few brave Scots who had turned up had to suffer taunts of "You are only good for making whisky". Meanwhile at Scottish pub the Rob Roy in London, the Scholes goals were greeted by a deafening silence.
Photographer John McDonald, 28, said: "Everyone is feeling so frus- trated. It's just so depress- ing. Missiles Peter Irvine, 52, of Livingston, said: "It was a disgrace. I saw one wee boy slumped against a car with blood all over him. His mother was distraught. By late afternoon, the number of arrests totalled Most of the England fans, however, were well behaved as they streamed towards the station.
One catching a train back to south- east London summed the day up. Nine out of every 10 bets we took were for an England victory and was by. The sinister conman blew apart police crowd segregation measures — selling his Mack market tickets indiscriminately to England and Scotland fans.
Smith eagerly agreed to supply News of the World Investigators with tickets after we rang his mobile phone. I've got mates In a couple of clubs. He was forced to give up his job as a used car dealer after being blasted wtth a shotgun on his doorstep. But Ms big money-spin- ner is touting— new our dos- sier on evil Smith Is availa- ble to the authorities.
More than SO MPs are. But in keeping an eye out for the Soviet aircraft that routinely probed our air defences during the Cold War, it soon became clear that there were other more exotic craft operating in British air- space. They flu more than files. Hies to which I have had access. If, and when, they are made avail- able publicly, I can promise some exciting revelations. I found explanations for 90pc of sightings, which turned out to be misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenom- ena; aircraft lights, satellites, meteors and airships. However, there has always been a hard core of sightings that couldn't be explained in conventional terms, where trained observers such as police officers and pilots have seen unidentified craft doing speeds and manoeuvres way beyond our capabilities.
UFO activity was witnessed over a series of nights, then on December 26 at 2am two patrolmen on a tour of the camp perimeter saw bright lights among the trees and went to investigate. Initially, they thought an air- craft had overshot the runway, although there was no accom- panying noise. But what they saw was like no aircraft they'd ever encountered before; a large metallic, triangular object which they chased before losing it among the trees.
He submitted a report to the MoD, describing the UFO as 'metallic in appearance and triangular in shape". The report says that sud- denly the lights appeared to 'explode' in fragments of white light. Immediately, Lt-Col Hatt q observed three objects in the sky. There are a number of Intriguing aerial encounters in Britain's so-called X-files, too. Two RAF jets were scram- bled to intercept the mystery craft, and an energetic game of cat and mouse ensued as the pilots attempted to lock-on to the target.
No adequate explanation was ever forthcoming. Last year, also over the North Sea, a ft UFO was pursued by two fighter jets before it took off at 17,mph. This incident was investigated by the Civil Aviation Authority but remained a mystery. The UFO was described by one of the military witnesses as being a vast, triangular craft only marginally smaller than a jumbo jet.
THE MoD was drawn into the crop-circle debate in — five years after they first started appearing — when a farmer in Middle Wallop, Hampshire, found a quintuplet of crop circles and blamed the local Army air corps base. A Lt-Col Edgecombe investigated and submitted photographs and reports to the MoD, a routine procedure but one which gave credence to the UFO link and allega- tions that then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher had asked for a report on the phe- nomenon.
S government's denial was not helped by the claims of a former U. Colonel Corso claimed that ne d seen the bodies, and that Ins job at the Pentagon involved finding ways to use the technological secrets gleaned from the debris of the craft. My three years of official research into the UFO phenomenon changed my life For ever. I'd come into the job as a sceptic, but came to believe that some UFOs might well be extra-terrestrial.
Major R. Booker presided and Lt Col G. Brig A. Director of Personal Services Army , was principal guest. QC, and Mr M. Phillips also spoke. Outcome of our n-vigw 6. It i s estimated some man hours wouia be required and so as not to adversely affect our existing review and transfer programme the task spread over a six month period. Airprox Reports 5. Where a military or civilian pilot considers that his aircraft has been endangered by the proximity of another aircraft including any flying object he was unable to identify , or in regulated airspace where an Air Traffic Controller believes there has been the risk of a collision, the pilot or ATC would be obliged to file an airmiss report Airprox.
RoleofSec AS12 7. Reports made elsewhere, either to military establishments, air traffic control centres or the civilian police, all eventually make their way to Sec AS 2 where each report is considered only to establish whether it has any defence significance. Some sighting reports and letters were received last year; so far this year c 1 50 reports and 1 60 letters have been received. There are no defence resources allocated for this purpose and, where there is no evidence in a report of defence concern, no action is taken to try and identify what might have been seen.
Some 'urologists' are unhappy with MOD's limited interest. A small number lobby vociferously for defence funds to be used for 'UFO' research, have their own agenda for such work and use all possible avenues eg writing to the Prime Minister, other Government Departments, the media etc to pursue their aims. As is the case with other Government files, MOD files are subject to the provisions of the Public Records Act of and and official files generally remain closed for 30 years. Prior to it was the case that 'UFO' files were destroyed after five years as there was insufficient interest in the subject to warrant their retention However, since all 'UFO' files have been preserved and routinely released to the Public Record Office at the year point.
Mr Nicholas Pope 1 1. The two books already published resulted in an increase in media and public interest in 'UFOs', which in turn led to temporary increases in the number of enquiries and sighting reports received. Lidington: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what is his policy towards the claim of the European Commission that the EU should have competence over readmission issues. Roche: Following the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty, matters concerning immigration and asylum co-operation are now contained within Title IV of the Treaty establishing the European Community and are therefore within Community competence.
The Government is of the view that readmission issues could fall within the scope of Article 63 3 b TEC which provides for measures on immigration policy within the area of removal of illegal residents. Under the terms of the Protocol on the position of the United Kingdom and Ireland, annexed to the Treaties by the Treaty of Amsterdam, the United Kingdom may decide to participate in the adoption and application of any measures, including readmission measures, brought forward in Title IV, but it is not otherwise bound by Community law in this area.
Should any readmission measures be considered to be a development of the Schengen acquis, the provisions of the Protocol integrating the Schengen acquis into the framework of the European Union would also be relevant. Prison Education Mr. Mackinlay: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what factors are used to determine the allocation of resources for postgraduate education courses to prisoners serving lengthy prison sentences. Boateng: The main priority for the Prison Service is to raise the levels of literacy and numeracy among prisoners, but there are opportunities for eligible prisoners to pursue courses of higher education where resources allow.
A prisoner would be deemed eligible if as a result of assessment a higher degree course was a requirement of the sentence plan. It would be necessary prior to embarking on this course of study for the prisoner to demonstrate that he or she was capable of attaining the qualification. Resources to pay for this could either come from the governor's budget, a charitable organisation or from the prisoner or a relative.
Mackinlay: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what resources are available for courses of study to further degree level in each prison; what criteria are applied in deciding the allocation of these resources; and if he will make a statement. Boateng: It is for prison governors to decide how much from their annual budget to allocate to education. The main priority of the Prison Service is to raise the levels of literacy and numeracy among prisoners, but there are opportunities for eligible prisoners to pursue higher education studies.
Each application is considered on its merits, and there is no predetermined level of funding specifically for degree courses. Before any application can be approved, the governor and education officer need to be satisfied that the prisoner has the aptitude, ability and motivation to complete their chosen course.
The Prison Service has made arrangements for eligible prisoners to undertake degree and other higher education courses with the Open University. These can be funded either by the prisoner, a relative, through a charitable trust or by the prison. Freedom of Information Mr. Mackinlay: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will authorise correspondence and papers between Ministers and their US counterparts to be made available for public access, simultaneous to their availability in the USA under the provisions of that country's freedom of information legislation; and if he will make a statement.
The Code of Practice promotes a culture of openness. It makes the assumption that information should be released except where disclosure would not be in the public interest. Whilst the Code of Practice identifies categories of information that are exempt from the commitment to provide information, where there is a reference to harm or prejudice, there is the presumption that information should be disclosed unless the harm likely to arise from disclosure would outweigh the public interest in making the information available.
The Code of Practice is a non-statutory regime which the Government plan to replace with a Freedom of Information Act. It will, however, continue to operate the Code of Practice until a new Act is brought into force. The Government plan to introduce a Freedom of information Bill into Parliament as soon as the timetable allows. Under the provisions contained in the Bill, public authorities, including all central government departments, will have a duty to comply with requests promptly and in any event within a specified time limit.
Where the information sought falls into an exempt area, it will be for the authority to consider, on a case by case basis, whether the information should be disclosed in the public interest. This will ensure that proper consideration is given to all requests by the authority. This is the appropriate way forward.
It is for the United Kingdom Government to develop legislation which is appropriate to the needs of this country. It would be wrong to subject United Kingdom authorities to the scope of foreign legislation in the context of their activities in this country. It is for the Parliament of the United Kingdom to decide such matters, not the congress of the United States of America.
The draft Bill was the subject of pre-legislative scrutiny by the Public Administration Select Committee, as well as a Select Committee of the House of Lords and a period of public consultation. Section 4. I said I would send you a note; this is attached. UK MOD's interest is limited to establishing from any reported sightings it receives whether the UK Air Defence Region has been breached by hostile military activity, and responding to any associated public correspondence.
The military requirement to maintain the integrity of the UK's airspace is met by a continuous recognised air picture radar and an air policing capability. Any threat to the UK Air Defence Region would be handled in the light of the particular circumstances at the time it might, if deemed appropriate, involve the scrambling or diversion of air defence aircraft. From that perspective, reports provided to us of 'UFO' sightings are examined, but consultation with air defence staff and others as necessary is considered only where there is sufficient evidence to suggest a breach of UK air space.
Only a handful of reports have been received in recent years that warranted further investigation and none revealed any evidence of a threat.
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